Periodontics is the branch of dentistry which treats supporting structures of teeth, and the diseases and conditions that affect them. Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a buildup of plaque between the gums and the teeth. This can lead to inflammation and other factors which can eventually lead to the destruction of supporting bone around natural teeth. Untreated, periodontal diseases can lead to bone and tooth loss, and is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. Techniques such as periodontal scaling and root planning can remove the plaque and calculus which are at the root of the infection.